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Steven Ross: SOE Faculty 

Steven M. Ross PhD

Professor
(901) 573-2379
200 W. Towsontown Blvd.
Baltimore, MD 21204

Program Affiliations

Educational Psychology and Research

Biography

Steven M. Ross is a senior research scientist and professor at the Center for Research and Reform in Education at Johns Hopkins University. Current projects include the evaluation of principal preparation and professional development programs, a city-wide turnaround initiative in Syracuse and Buffalo, and after-school mentoring and experiential learning programs for children and adolescents in multiple states. He is the author of six textbooks and over 140 journal articles in the areas of educational technology, at-risk learners, educational reform, extended learning time programs and research and evaluation. He is a noted lecturer on school programs and educational evaluation, editor emeritus of the research section of the Educational Technology Research and Development journal, and a member of the editorial board for four other professional journals. In 1993, he was the first faculty recipient of the University of Memphis Eminent Faculty Award for teaching, research and service, and recently held the Lillian and Morrie Moss Chair of Excellence in Urban Education and a Faudree Professorship at the University of Memphis. He has testified on school restructuring research before the U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families, has been a consultant to the National Science Foundation on project evaluation design, and is a technical advisor and researcher on current federal and state initiatives regarding the evaluation of out-of-school learning, technology usage, evaluation of principals and supplemental educational services.

Education

Ph.D, Educational Psychology, Penn State, 1974
M.S. , Educational Psychology, Penn State, 1971
BA, Psychology, Penn State, 1969

Courses Taught

Educational Psychology
Educational Research
Psychology of Learning

Grants and Contracts Awarded

Evaluation of Supplemental Services in TN. Tennessee Dept. Of Education, 2006-08, $90,000 per year

Evaluation of Supplemental Services in MD. Maryland Dept. Of Education, 2006-08, $110,000 per year.

Evaluation of the Together for All Program in N. Ireland, Subcontract from University of York, 2009-2011 ($75, 000 per year).

Evaluation of the Keystone After-School Program. Taco Bell Foundation for Teens, 2000-11, $40,000.

Study of After-School Experiential Learning Programs. Taco Bell Foundation for Teens, 2000-11, $25,000.

Evaluation of the Rice Education Entrepreneurship Program, Rice University, 2012-present, $25,000.

Evaluation of the Women’s Initiative Fellowship Program, George W. Bush Institute, 2012-present, $91,000.

Technical Support on Evaluation to GWBI, George W. Bush Institute, 2012-present, $60,000.

Evaluation of Mentoring and Case Management, Horizon Foundation, 2011-present, $25,000.

Recent Publications and Presentations

Muñoz. M. A., & Ross, S. M. (2012; in press). No Child Left behind and tutoring in reading and mathematics: Impact of Supplemental Educational Services on large-scale assessment. Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 17(3), pp. x-x.

Lowther, D.L. & Ross, S.M. (2012). Technology Integration: Device-Driven or Outcome-Oriented. In R. A. Reiser & J. V. Dempsey (Eds.) Trends and Issues in Instructional Design and Technology (pp. 208-217). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice Hall.

Ross, S. M., Sheard, M. K., Cheung, A., Slavin, R. E., Tracey, L., & Elliott, L. (2011). Promoting students social-emotional learning and prosocial behavior: Longitudinal evaluation of the Together 4 All program in Northern Ireland. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans.

Strahl, J. D., Lowther, D. L., & Ross, S.M. (2010). Assessing the impact of providing laptop computers to students. In J.A. Morrell (Ed.) Evaluation in the Face of Uncertainty: Anticipating Surprise and Responding to the Inevitable (pp. 210-213). New York, NY: The Guilford Press

Inan, F.A., Lowther, D.L., Ross, S.M., & Strahl, J.D. (2010). Pattern of Classroom Activities during Students Use of Computers: Relations between Instructional Strategies and Computer Applications. Teaching and Teacher Education, 26(3), 540-546.

Ross, S., Morrison, G., Lowther, D. (2010). Educational technology research past and present: Balancing rigor and relevance to impact school learning.. Contemporary Educational Technology, 1(1), 17-25.

Sheard, M. K. & Ross, S. M. (August, 2010). Evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention programme for social-emotional learning. European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction Conference. Leuven, Belgium. August 25-27.

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S, M., Kemp, J. E. & Kalman, H. (2010). Designing Effective Instruction (6th Edition). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley & Sons.

Ross, S., Morrison, G. (2009). The role of evaluation in instructional design. In K. Silber & R. Foshay (Ed.), Handbook of improving performance in the workplace. Instructional design and training delivery. (vol. 1, pp. 554-576). San Francisco, CA: Pfieffer.

Beckett, M., Borman, G., Capizzano, J., Parsely, D., Ross, S., Schirm, A., Taylor, J. (2009). Structuring out-of-school time to improve academic achievement: A practice guide. (vol. NCEE #2009-012). Washington, DC: Institute of Educational Sciences. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/publications/practiceguides

Munoz, M. A., & Ross, S. M. (2009). Supplemental educational services as a component of No Child Left Behind: A mixed-method analysis of its impact on student achievement. Planning and Changing, 40(3)135-139

Complete CV


VITA

 

PERSONAL DATA

Steven M. Ross

Mobile:  (901) 573-2479

Professor, CRRE

Office:  (410) 616-2407

Johns Hopkins University

E-Mail:  sross19@jhu.edu

 

EDUCATION

The Pennsylvania State University

B.A.

 

The Pennsylvania State University

M.S.

 

The Pennsylvania State University

Ph.D.

 

 

     Undergraduate Major:

Psychology

              Graduate Major:

Educational Psychology

 

 

PROFESSIONAL ASSOCIATIONS

            American Psychological Association

Fellow

            American Educational Research Association

Member

            Association for Educational Communications & Technology

Member

            International Congress for School Effectiveness and School Improvement

Member

 

 

EXPERIENCE

Instructor

Continuing Education

The Pennsylvania State University

1973 – 1974

Instructor

Psychology

Lock Haven State College, Lock Haven, PA

Spring Semester

1974

Evaluator

Mitre Corporation

McLean, Virginia

Summer, 1974

Assistant Professor

Educational Psychology

The University of Memphis

1974 – 1979

Associate Professor

Educational Psychology

The University of Memphis

1980 – 1985

Professor

Educational Psychology

The University of Memphis

1985 – 2008

Director

Center for Research in Educational Policy

The University of Memphis

2001 – 2008

Professor

Educational Research

John Hopkins University

2009-present

 

 

COURSES RECENTLY TAUGHT

Theories of Learning

Undergraduate

Individual Differences and Learning

Graduate

Educational Statistics

Undergraduate and Graduate

Educational Research

Graduate

Computers in Education

Undergraduate and Graduate

Thesis Writing

Graduate

Educational Assessment

Graduate

 

 

HONORS AND DISTINCTIONS

 

1.      NDEA Fellowship for graduate study at the Pennsylvania State University, 1971-1973

2.      Graduate Student Associate, Southwest Regional Laboratory, Summer, 1971

3.      Distinguished Teaching Service Award, University of Memphis, 1980

4.      Phi Delta Kappa Professional Research Award, Memphis Chapter, 1983

5.      Elected Fellow, Division 15, American Psychological Association, 1986

6.      Visiting Scholar, National Center for Research on Improving Postsecondary Teaching and Learning.  University of Michigan, Summer 1987

7.      Distinguished Research Award, University of Memphis, 1987

8.      Distinguished Teacher Service Award, University of Memphis, 1988

         (First eligibility since 1980; no longer eligible)

9.      Memphis State University nominee, CASE Professor of the Year Award, 1989

10.    Superior Performance in University Research (SPUR) Award, University of Memphis, 1990, 1991, 1992

11.    Distinguished Research Award, University of Memphis, 1993

12.    Board of Visitors Eminent Faculty Award, University of Memphis (first recipient), 1993

13.    Editor, Educational Technology Research and Development, 1993-2009

14.    Editorial Board, Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk. 1995-present

15.    Invited testimony, U.S. House of Representatives Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Youth, and Families, Committee on Education and the Workforce, June 26, 1998

16.      Invited panelist on comprehensive school reform, discussion with Secretary of Education Richard Riley, March 16. 1999

17.      Lillian and Morrie Moss Chair of Excellence in Urban Education, 2001

18.      Provost’s Professorship, 2004-2005, The University of Memphis

19.      College of Education Outstanding Research Award, 2002, The University of Memphis

20.      AERA Distinguished Journal Reviewer, 2005

21.      Invited Testimony to the TN Senate Education Committee, April 2005

22.      AERA Distinguished Paper (with D. Lowther, F. Inan, and J. Strahl), “Technology as an Agent of Change in Teaching and Learning,” for the Technology as an Agent of Change in Teaching of Learning Special Interest Group, New York City, April, 2008

23.      AECT Distinguished Service Award), October, 2009

24.      Director (Interim), National Charter School Resource Center, 2009-2010.

25.      President, World Conference on Educational Sciences, Malta, February, 2014.

26.      Visiting Distinguished Scholar, School of Education, Hong Kong University, Jan 12-25, 2015.

 

SCHOLARSHIP

Publications in Refereed Journals

141

Books

    7

Book Chapters

  28

Papers Presented at Professional Meetings

255

 

SELECTED RECENT PUBLICATIONS

 

Ross, S. M. , and Morrison, J. (2014) Measuring meaningful outcomes in consequential contexts:  Searching for a happy medium in educational technology research (Phase II).  Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 26(1), 4-21.

 

Morrison, G., & Ross, S. (2015). Experimental research and educational technology. In J. Spector (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of educational technology. (pp. 287-291). Thousand Oaks,, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4135/9781483346397.n125

 

Morrison, G. R. & Ross, S. M. (2014). Research-based instructional perspectives. In J. M. Spector, M. D. Merrill, & M. J. Bishop (Eds.). Handbook of Research on Educational Communications and Technology, 4th Ed. Springer.

 

Corcoran, R., Ross, S. (2014). Around the Corner: A randomized controlled trial study of a technology-enhanced approach to early literacy. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences,, 9, 316-329.

 

Ross, S. (2013). It Takes a City to" Raise" a Systemic Reform: Early Outcomes from the Say Yes City-wide Turnaround Strategy in Syracuse. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 8(1), 63-77.

 

Sheard, M., Ross, S., Cheung, C.-K. (2013). Social-Emotional Learning Championing Freedom, Education and Development: A Vehicle for At-risk Students to Succeed.. Cypriot Journal of Educational Sciences, 8(1), 1-18.

 

 

Sheard, M., Ross, S., & Cheung, A. (2012). Educational effectiveness of an intervention programme for social-emotional learning. International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches, 6 (3), 264-284.

 

Clifford, M. & Ross, S. M. (2012).  The future of principal evaluation.  Principal, 35, 16-18. 

 

Sheard, M. & Ross, S. (2012). Improving social-emotional learning. Better: Evidence-based Education, 4 (2), 14–15.

 

Ross, S. M. & Morrison, G. R. (2012). Constructing a deconstructed campus: Instructional design as vital bricks and mortar. Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 23, 119-131. Doi:10.1007/s12528-012-9056-0.

 

Ross, S. M., Sheard, M. K., Cheung, A., Elliott, L., & Slavin, R. E.  (2011).  Promoting primary pupils’ social-emotional learning and pro-social behavior: Longitudinal evaluation of the Together 4 All programme in Northern Ireland.  Effective Education, 3 (2), 12, 25.

 

Lowther, D. L., Inan, F. A., Ross, S., & Strahl, J. (2012). Do one-to-one initiatives bridge the way to 21st century knowledge and skills? Journal of Educational Computing Research, 46, 20-32. 

 

Munoz, M., & Ross, S.(2012). No Child Left behind and tutoring in reading and mathematics:  Impact of supplemental educational services on large-scale assessment. Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk, 17 (3),186-200.

 

 

Ross, S., Sheard, M., Slavin, R., & Cheung, C.-K. (2011). Evaluation of T4A:  Sweep 4 results. York, UK: IEE, University of York.

 

Nunnery, J. A., Ross, S., Chappell, S., Pribesh, S., & Yen, C.-J. (2011). The Impact of the NISL Executive Development Program on school performance in Pennsylvania. Norfolk, VA: Center for Educational Partnerships, Old Dominion University.

 

Ross, S., Sheard, M., Cheung, C.-K., Slavin, R., Elliott, L., Tracey, L., & Hanley, P. (2011). Together 4 All evaluation:  Final report. York, UK: IEE, University of York.

 

Nunnery, J. A., Ross, S., Chappell, S., & Pribesh, S. (2011). The impact of the NISL Executive Development Program on school performance in Massachusetts: Round 2 results. Norfolk, VA: The Center for Educational Partnerships at Old Dominion University.

 

Clifford, M., & Ross, S. (2011). Designing principal evaluation systems: Research to guide decision-making. Alexandria, VA: NAESP.

 

Ross, S. M., Sheard, M. K., Cheung, A., Slavin, R. E., Tracey, L., & Elliott, L. (2011).  Promoting students’ social-emotional learning and pro-social behavior: Longitudinal evaluation of the Together 4 All program in Northern Ireland.  Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New Orleans. 

 

Lowther, D. L., & Ross, S. (2011). Technology integration: Device-driven or outcome-oriented. In R. Reiser & J. Dempsey (Eds.), Trends and issues in instructional design and technology (pp. 208-217). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill Prentice-Hall.

 

Ross, S., Morrison, G., & Lowther, D. (2010). Educational technology research past and present: Balancing rigor and relevance to impact school learning. Contemporary Educational Technology, 1(1), 17-25.

Sheard, M. K. & Ross, S. M. (2010, August).  Evaluating the effectiveness of an intervention programme for social-emotional learning.  Paper presented at the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction Conference.  Leuven, Belgium.

 

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S., M., Kemp, J. E., & Kalman, H. (2010).  Designing effective instruction (6th ed.).  Hoboken, NJ:  Wiley & Sons. 

 

 

Ross, S., & Morrison, G. (2009). The role of evaluation in instructional design. In K. Silber & R. Foshay (Eds.), Handbook of improving performance in the workplace.  Instructional design and training delivery, Vol. 1 (pp. 554-576). San Francisco, CA: Pfieffer.

 

Beckett, M., Borman, G., Capizzano, J., Parsely, D., Ross, S., Schirm, A., & Taylor, J. (2009). Structuring out-of-school time to improve academic achievement: A practice guide. (Vol. NCEE #2009-012). Washington, DC: Institute of Educational Sciences. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/publications/practiceguides

 

Munoz, M. A., & Ross, S. M. (2009).  Supplemental educational services as a component of No Child Left Behind:  A mixed-method analysis of its impact on student achievement.  Planning and Changing, 40 (3),135-139

 

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., & Lowther, D. L. (2009).  Technology as a change agent in the classroom.  In L. Mollwe, D. Harvey, & J. Huett (Eds.), Learning and instructional technologies for the 21st century (pp. 151-174).  New York, NY:  Springer.

 

Munoz, M. A., Potter, A. P., & Ross, S. M. (2008).  Supplemental educational services as a consequence of the NCLB legislation: Evaluating its impact on student achievement in a large urban district.  Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk, 13 (1), 1-25.

 

Nunnery, J. A., Ross, S. M., & Bol, L. (2008).  The construct validity of teachers’ perceptions of change in schools implementing comprehensive school reform models.  Journal of Educational Research & Policy Studies, 8 (1), 67-87.

 

Ross, S. M., Potter, A., Paek, J., McKay, D., Sanders, W., & Ashton, J. (2008).  Implementation and outcomes of supplemental educational services: The Tennessee State-wide Evaluation Study.  Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 13 (1), 26-58.

 

Nunnery, J., Ross, S. M., & McDonald, A. J. (2007).  A randomized experimental evaluation of the impact of Accelerated Reader/ Reading Renaissance implementation on reading achievement in Grades 3 to 6.  Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk, 11(1), 1-18.

 

Munoz, M., Ross, S. M., & McDonald, A. J. (2007).  CSR Model in Middle Schools:  The effects of DWoK on student achievement in a large urban school district.  Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk, 12(2), 167-183.

 

Nunnery, J. A., & Ross, S. M. (2007).  The effects of the School Renaissance Program on student achievement in reading and mathematics.  Research in the Schools, 14(1), 40-59.

 

Potter, A., Ross, S. M., Goldfeder, E., & McDonald, A. J.  (2007). Small high schools.  In K.M. Borman, S.E. Cahill, & B.A. Cotner (Eds.), The Praeger handbook of American high schools: Vol. 2 (pp. 364-366).  Westport, CT: Praeger.

 

Ross, S. M. (2007).  Achievements, challenges and potential advancements in reviewing educational evidence for consumers.  Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 12(1), 91-100.

 

Ross, S. M., McDonald, A. J., Alberg, M., & Gallagher, B. (2007).  Achievement and climate outcomes for the Knowledge is Power Program in an inner-city middle school.  Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 12(2), 137-165. 

 

Morrison, G. R., & Ross, S. M. (2007). Designing effective online instruction. In R. Luppicini (Ed.), Learning communities in online education. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, (75-85).

 

McDonald, A. J., Ross, S. M., Bol, L., & McSparrin-Gallagher, B. (2007).  Charter school as a vehicle for education reform implementation and outcomes at three inner-city sites.  Journal of Education for Students Placed at Risk, 12(3), 271-300.

 

Grant, M. M., Lowther, D. L., & Ross, S. M. (2006).  Tina Sears: Evaluating the impact of a K-12 laptop program.  In P. A. Ertmer & J. Quinn (Eds.), The ID casebook: Case studies in instructional design, (3rd ed.).  Upper Saddle River, NJ:  Pearson. 

 

Lowther, D. L., Ross, S. M., & Strahl, J. D. (2006).  The influence of technology integration on instructional practices.  International Journal of Knowledge, Culture and Change Management, 6 (5), 131-141. 

 

Grant, M. M., Ross, S. M., Wang, W., & Potter, A. (2005).  Computers on wheels: An alternative to ‘each one has one.’  British Journal of Educational Technology, 36 (6), 1017-1034. 

 

Ross, S. M., Morrison, G., & Lowther, D. L. (2005).  Using experimental methods in higher education research.  Journal of Computing in Higher Education, 16(2), 39-64.

 

McDonald, A.J., Sterbinsky, A., Lowther, D., Ross, S.M., Redfield, D., Apodaca, M., & Martelli, S. (2004).  Demonstrating comprehensive school reform: A review of two longitudinal studies.  The International Journal of Educational Policy, Research and Practice, 4 (4), 93-110. 

 

Ross, S.M., & Gil, L. (2004).  The past and future of comprehensive school reform: Perspectives from a researcher and practitioner.  In Christopher T. Cross (Ed.), Putting the pieces together: Lessons from CSR research (pp. 151-174). Washington, DC:  NCCSR. 

 

            Ross, S. M., Nunnery, J. A., Goldfeder, E., McDonald, A., Rachor, R., Hornbeck, M., & Fleischman, S. (2004).  Using school reform models to improve reading achievement: A longitudinal study of Direct Instruction and Success for All in an urban district.  Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk, 9 (4), 357-388.

 

Publications (1971-2003)

 

Di Vesta, F. J., & Ross, S. M. (1971).  Imagery ability, abstractness, and word order as variables in recall of adjectives and nouns.  Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 10, 686-693.

 

Hanson, R. A., & Ross, S. M. (1975).  The adequacy of instructional time allocation.  Studies in Educational Evaluation, 1, 23-28.

 

Dellow, D. A., Webb, A. B., & Ross, S. M. (1976).  Systematic observation strategy in staff development.  J.W. Brister Library Monograph Series, 4, 21-32.

 

Webb, A. B., Dellow, D. A., & Ross, S. M. (1976).  Improving college instruction through observation and feedback.  Teacher Educator, 12, 35-40.

 

Ross, S. M., & Di Vesta, F. J. (1976).  Oral summary as a review strategy for enhancing recall of textual material.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 689-695.

 

Dellow, D. A., Osmus, K., & Ross, S. M. (1977).  Evaluation of student participation in the teacher apprentice program at Memphis State University.  Educational Quest, 21, 21-26.

 

Ross, S. M., Rakow, E. A., & Dellow, D. A. (1978).  Student evaluation and faculty development:  A case for localized evaluation systems.  The Educational Catalyst, 8, 146-154.

 

Di Vesta, F. J., & Ross, S. M. (1978).  The effects of imagery ability and contextual saliency on the semantic interpretation of verbal stimuli.  Journal of Mental Imagery, 2, 187-188.

 

Ross, S. M., Raines, F. B., & Cervetti, M. J. (1978, Nov. 6).  Practice teaching is essential.  Christian Science Monitor, B9.

 

Ross, S. M. (1978).  New developments in individualized instruction through application of adaptive testing.  Educational Quest, 2, 26-31.

 

Ross, S. M., Rakow, E. A., & Dellow, D. A. (1979, Jan. 2).  A positive setting for faculty evaluations.  Christian Science Monitor, 21.

 

Ross, S. A., Sochat, N., & Ross, S. M. (1980).  Close encounters of the medical kind: Attitudes toward male and female physicians. Social Science in Medicine, 14A, 61-64.

 

Ross, S. M., & Rakow, E. A. (1980).  Adaptive design strategies for the teacher-managed course.  Journal of Instructional Psychology, 7, 13-19.

 

Ross, S. M., & Dellow, D. A. (1980).  Adaptive instruction:  Past events and future directions.  Educational Catalyst, 10, 33-38.

 

Ross, S. M., Rakow, E. A., & Bush, A. J. (1980).  Instructional adaptation for self-managed learning systems.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 72, 312-320.

 

Ross, S. M., & Bush, A. J. (1980).  Orienting statistics instruction for teacher candidates to classroom applications. Journal of Educational Research, 74, 19-23.

 

Dellow, D. A., Ross, S. M., & James, T. (1980). Grades: Are they still bothering adolescents?  The High School Journal, 64, 55-59.

 

Ross, S. M., Raines, F., Cervetti, M. J., & Dellow, D. A. (1980).  Field experiences for teacher candidates:  A comparison between tutorial and apprenticeship programs on student activities and attitudes.  Journal of Teacher Education, 31, 57-61.

 

Krisak, J., & Ross, S. M. (1981).  An adaptive instructional model for correctional education.  Journal of Correctional Education, 32, 12-14.

 

Ross, S. M., & Rakow, E. A. (1981).  Learner control versus program control as adaptive strategies for selection of instructional support on math rules.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 73, 745-753.

 

Ross, S. M. (1981).  Student control as a management strategy in individualized instruction.  Journal of Instructional Psychology, 8, 132-138.

 

Ross, S. M., Hughes, T. M., & Hill, B. E. (1981).  Field experiences as meaningful contexts for learning about learning.  Journal of Educational Research, 75, 103-108.

 

Ross, S. M., & Dellow, D. A. (1981).  Second decade of an alternative teaching method.  Educational Catalyst, 11, 7-12.

 

Ross, S. M., & Wasicsko, M. M. (1982).  Field experiences for preservice teachers: What participants do and learn in the middle schools.  TAMS Journal, 6, 10-16.

 

Wasicsko, M. M., & Ross, S. M. (1982).  How to give a test that gets kids to learn.  Learning, 11, 126.

 

Dellow, D. A., & Ross, S. M. (1982-83).  Implications of personal computers for social science faculty.  Community College Social Science Journal, 4, 72-75.

 

Ross, S. M., & Rakow, E. A. (1982).  Adaptive instructional strategies for teaching rules in mathematics.  Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 30, 67-74.

 

Campbell, L., & Ross, S. M. (1982).  Computers:  Issues relevant to Montessorians.  The Constructive Triangle, Fall issue, 1-6.

 

Ross, S. M. (1983).  Increasing the meaningfulness of quantitative material by adapting context to student background.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 75, 519-529.

 

Murphy, L., & Ross, S. M. (1983).  Student self-control as a basis for instructional adaptation with behaviorally disordered children.  Behavioral Disorders, 8, 237-243.

 

Wasicsko, M. M., & Ross, S. M. (1983).  How to create discipline problems.  Clearinghouse, 56, 149-522.

 

Ross, S. M., & Wasicsko, M. M. (1983).  Teaching principles of learning and instruction through field experiences.  Educational and Psychological Research, 3, 1-10.

 

Ross, S. M., & Campbell, L. (1983).  Computer-based education in the Montessori classroom: A compatible mixture?  Technological Horizons in  Education, 10, 105-109.

 

Wasicsko, M. M., & Ross, S. M. (1983).  Teaching children to be discipline problems.  Analytic Teaching, 3, 35-38.

 

Ross, S. M.  (1984).  Influences of adapting the context of instruction to student background.  Journal of Instructional Psychology, 11, 17-27.

 

Ross, S. M. (1984).  Matching the lesson to the student.  Alternative adaptive designs for individualized learning systems.  Journal of Computer-Based Instruction, 22, 42-48.

 

Ross, S. M., McCormick, D., Krisak, N., & Anand, P. (1985).  Personalizing context in teaching mathematical concepts: Teacher-managed and computer-managed models.  Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 133, 169-178.

 

Chickering, P., & Ross, S. M. (1985).  Critical events in the United Nations Semester II.  Forum for Honors, 3, 27-33.

 

Ross, S. M., McCormick, D., & Krisak, N. (1986).  Adapting the thematic context of mathematical problems to student interests:  Individual versus group-based strategies.  Journal of Educational Research, 79,  245-252.

 

Wasicsko, M. M., & Ross, S. M. (1986).  Get your test back?  What did you learn?  Analytic Teaching, 6, 16-17.

 

Murphy, L. O., & Ross, S. M. (1987).  Gender differences in the social problem-solving performance of adolescents.  Sex Roles, 16, 251-264.

 

Anand, P., & Ross, S. M. (1987).  Using computer-assisted instruction to personalize arithmetic materials for elementary school children.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 79, 72-77.

 

Ross, S. M., Davis, T. M., & Etheridge, G. W. (1987).  Using "action" research to learn about teaching.  TAMS Journal, 11, 14-19.

 

Robinson, K. D., & Ross, S. M. (1987).  Incentives as a treatment variable for facilitating performance of elderly adults on concrete Piagetian tasks.  International Journal of Behavior and Development, 10, 501-508.

 

Ross, S. M., & Anand, P. (1987).  A computer-based strategy for personalizing verbal problems in teaching mathematics.  Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 35, 151-162.

 

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., & O'Dell, J. (1988).  Text density level as a design variable in instructional displays.  Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 36, 103-115.

 

Ross, S. M., Anand, P. G., Morrison, G. R., & O'Dell, J. K. (1988).  Putting the student into the word problem:  Microcomputer-based strategies that personalize math instruction.  Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 10, 29-42.

 

Ross, S. M., Anand, P., & Morrison, G. R. (1988).  Personalizing math problems: A modern technology approach to a new idea.  Educational Technology, 28, 20-24.

 

Morrison, G. R., & Ross, S. M. (1988).  A four-stage model for planning computer-based instruction.  Journal of Instructional Development, 11, 6-14.

 

Morrison, G. M., Ross, S. M., O'Dell, J. K., & Schultz, C. W. (1988).  Adapting text presentations to media attributes: Getting more out of less in CBI.  Computers and Human Behavior, 4, 65-75.

 

Dellow, D. A., Douzenis, C., & Ross, S. M. (1988).  An analysis of course withdrawals at a rural community college in Florida.  Community College Journal for Research and Planning, 6, 3-13.

 

Ross, S. M., Morrison, G. R., & O'Dell, J. (1988).  Obtaining more out of less text in CBI:  Effects of varied text density levels as a function of learner characteristics and control strategy.  Educational Communication and Technology Journal, 36, 131-142.

 

Rich, H. L., & Ross, S. M. (1989).  Students' time on learning tasks in special education.  Exceptional Children, 55, 508-515.

 

McLaughlin, R. D., & Ross, S. M. (1989).  Student cheating in high school:  A case of moral reasoning vs. "fuzzy logic."  The High School Journal, 72, 94-104.

 

Ross, S. M., & Morrison, G. R. (1989).  In search of a happy medium in instructional technology research.  Issues concerning external validity, media replications, and learner control.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 37, 19-34.

 

Ross, S. M., Smith, L., Morrison, G. R., & Erickson, A. (1989).  Helping at-risk children learn through distance tutoring: The Memphis ACOT  program.  Technological Horizons in Education, 16, 68-71.

 

Ross, S. M., Smith, L., & Morrison, G. R. (1989).  An apple a day and at night: A distance tutoring program for at-risk students.  Educational Technology, 23-28.

 

Morrison, G. R., & Ross, S. M., Schultz, C. W., & O'Dell, J. K. (1989).  Learner preferences for varying screen densities using realistic stimulus materials with single and multiple designs.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 37, 53-60.

 

Smith, L. S., & Ross, S. M. (1989).  Who's training the teachers for technology?  Tennessee Educational Leadership, 16, 29-33

 

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., O'Dell, J. K., Schultz, C. W., & Higginbotham-Wheat, N. (1989).  Implications for the design of computer-based instruction screens.  Computers and Human Behavior, 5, 167-173.

 

Ross, S. M., Morrison, G. R., & O'Dell, J. K. (1989).  Uses and effects of learner control of context and instructional support in computer-based  instruction.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 37, 29-40.

 

McCormick, D., & Ross, S. M. (1990).  Effects of computer access and flowcharting on students' attitudes and performance in learning computer programming.  Journal of Educational Computing Research, 6, 203-214.

 

Ross, S. M., Morrison, G. R., Smith, L. J., & Cleveland, E. (1990).  An evaluation of alternative distance tutoring models for at-risk elementary school children.  Computers and Human Behavior, 6, 247-259.

 

Murphy, L. O., & Ross, S. M. (1990).  Protagonist gender as a design variable in adapting mathematics story problems to learner interests.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 38, 27-38.

 

Morrison, G. R., &  Ross, S. M. (1991).   How to get your convention proposal accepted for AECT '92. Tech Trends, 36, 69-70.

 

Ross, S. M., & Morrison, G. R. (1991).  Delivering your convention presentations at AECT 91.  Tech Trends, 36,  66-68.

 

Ross, S. M., Morrison, G. R., & Barnette, J. J. (1991).  Using electronic study guides as instructional aids in college courses.  Journal of Structural Learning.

 

Davis-Dorsey, J., Ross, S. M., & Morrison, G. R. (1991).  The role of rewording and context personalization in the solving of mathematics word  problems.  Journal of Educational Psychology, 83, 61-68.

 

Rich, H. L., &  Ross, S. M. (1991).  Regular class or resource for handicapped students?  A direct response to a mixed message.  Exceptional Children, 57, 476-477.

 

Ross, S. M., &  Ralston, E. (1991).  Uses of computer-assisted instruction in teaching foreign language in an urban school system.  IALL Journal of Language Learning Technologies, 24, 19-26.

 

Ross, S. M., Smith, L.  J., & Woodson, E. (1991).  The development of writing skills in a computer-intensive environment.  Journal of Computing in Childhood Education, 2,  3-20.

 

Clariana, R. B., Ross, S. M., & Morrison, G. R. (1991).  The effects on learning of different feedback strategies using computer-assisted multiple-choice questions as instruction.  Educational Technology Research and Development., 39, 5-18.

 

Smith, L. J., & Ross, M. (1991).  Research implications for computers in classrooms.  Tennessee Educational Leadership, 18, 13-20

 

Ross, S. M., Smith, L. J., & Morrison, G. R. (1991).  The longitudinal influences of computer-intensive learning experiences on at-risk elementary students. Educational Technology Research and Development, 39, 33-46.

 

Byrd, C. E, & Ross, S. M. (1991).  The influence of participation in junior high athletics on students' attitudes and grades.  Physical Educator, 48, 170-176.

 

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., & Baldwin, W. (1992).  Learner control of context and instructional support in learning elementary school mathematics.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 40, 5-14.

 

Ross, S. M., & Morrison, G. R. (1992).  Getting started as a researcher:  Designing and conducting research studies in educational technology.  Tech Trends, 37, 19-22.

 

Johnsey, A., Morrison, G. R., & Ross, S. M. (1992).  Using elaboration strategies training in computer-based instruction to promote generative learning.  Contemporary Educational Psychology, 17, 125-135.

 

Ross, S. M., Sullivan, H., & Tennyson, R. D (1992). Educational technology:  Four decades of research and theory.   Educational Technology Research and Development, 40, 5-8.

 

Ross, S. M., & Morrison, G. R. (1993).  How to get research articles published in professional journals.  Tech Trends, 38, 29-33.

 

Smith, L. J. , Ross, S. M. , & Nunnery J. (1994).  No road too long:  A senior citizens’ mentoring program.  Tennessee Reading Teacher, 22, 8-11.

 

Slavin, R. E., Madden, N. A., Dolan, L. J., Wasik, B. A., Ross, S. M., & Smith, L. J. (1994).  “Whenever and wherever we choose...”  The  replication of Success for All.  Phi Delta Kappan, 639-647.

 

Baskin, M., & Ross, S.  (1993/1994).  Selecting teacher candidates via structured interviews:  A validation study of the urban teacher selection interview.  Louisiana Educational Research Journal, 19, 23-37.

 

Stewart, M. F., & Ross, S. M. (1994).  Standards and assessment:  Putting the horse before the cart.  Tennessee Educational Leadership, 21, 6-10.

 

Wascisko,  M. M., & Ross, S. M. (1994).  How to create discipline problems.  The Clearing House, 67, 248-251. 

 

Bond, C., Ross, S. M., Smith, L. J., & Nunnery, J. (1994).  Reading programs for early intervention.  Tennessee Educational Leadership, 21, 18-20.

 

Ross, S. M. (1994).  Delivery trucks or groceries?  More food for thought on whether media (will, may, can't) influence learning.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 42, 5-7.

 

Ross, S. M., Morrison, G. R., & Shultz, C. W. (1994).  Preferences for different CBI test screens based on the density level and realism of the lesson content viewed.  Computers and Human Behavior, 10, 593-603.

 

Ross, S. M., & Smith, L. J. (1994).  Effects of the Success for All Model on kindergarten through second-grade reading achievement, teachers’ adjustment, and classroom climate at an inner-city school.  Elementary School Journal, 95, 121-138.

 

Ross, S. M., Smith, L. J., Lohr, L., & McNelis, M. (1994).  Math and reading instruction in tracked first-grade classes.  Elementary School Journal, 95, 105-120.

 

Ross, S. M., Smith, L. J., Nunnery, J., Douzenis, C., McLean, J. E., & Trentham, L. (1994).  Do funding inequities produce educational disparity?  Research issues in the Alabama case.  Research in Schools, 20, 32-50.

 

Ross, S. M. (1994).  From ingredients to recipes...and back:  It's the taste that counts.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 42, 5-6.

 

Morrison, G. R., Ross, S. M., Gopalakrishman, M., & Casey, J. (1995).  The effects of feedback and incentives on achievement in computer-based instruction.  Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20-32-50.

 

Bond, C. L., Ross, S.M., Smith, L.J., & Casey, J. (1995-1996).  The effects of a structured phonics program on reading achievement of beginning readers.  Reading Research and Instruction, 35, 122-141.

 

Ross, S.M., Smith, L. J., Casey, J., & Slavin, R.  (1995).  Increasing the academic success of disadvantaged children:  An examination of alternative early intervention programs.  American Educational Research Journal, 32, 773-800.

 

Ross, S.M., & Smith, L. J. (1995).  Restructuring elementary schools to help at-risk students become effective readers: Present strategies and future directions of Success for All.  School Library Media Quarterly, 24, 35-46.

 

Lohr, L. L., Ross, S. M., & Morrison, G. R. (1995).  Using a hypertext environment for teaching process writing:  An evaluation study of three student groups.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 43, 15-33.

 

Durham, P., Morrison, G., & Ross, S. (1995).  Technology training of 21st century classroom teachers.  Tennessee Educational Leadership, 22, 41-45.

 

Baskin, M. K., Ross, S. M., & Smith, D. L. (1996).  Selecting successful teachers: The predictive validity of the urban teacher selection interview.  The Teacher Educator, 22, 1-21.

 

Nath, L. R., Ross, S. M., & Smith, L. (1996).  A case study of implementing a cooperative learning program in an inner-city school.  The Journal of Experimental Education, 64, 116-138.

 

Slavin, R. E., Madden, N. A., Dolan, L. J., Wasik, B. A., Ross, S. M., Smith, L., & Diana, M. (1996).  Success for All:  A summary of research.  Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk, 1, 41-76.

 

Smith, L. J., Ross, S. M., & Casey, J. P. (1996).  Multi-site comparison of the effects of Success for All on reading achievement. Journal of Literacy Research, 28(3), 329-353.

 

Ross, S. M., & Smith, L. J. (1996).  The Memphis 21st Century Exposition:  A foundation for systemic school reform.  Tennessee Educational Leadership, 23(2), 34-41.

 

Ross, S. M., Henry, D., Phillipsen, L., Evans, K., Smith L., & Buggey, T. (1997).  Matching restructuring programs to schools:  Selection, negotiation, and preparation.  School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 8, 45-71.

 

Ross, S. M., Troutman, A., Horgan, D., Maxwell, S., Laitinen, R., & Lowther, D. (1997).  The success of schools in implementing eight restructuring designs:  A synthesis of first-year evaluation outcomes. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 8, 95-124.

 

Ross, S.M., Smith, L. J., & Casey, J. (1997).  Preventing early school failure:  Impacts of Success for All on standardized test outcomes, minority group performance, and school effectiveness.  Journal for Research on Students Placed At Risk, 2, 29-54.

 

Stringfield, S., & Ross, S. M. (1997).  A “reflection” at mile three of marathon:  The Memphis restructuring initiative in mid-stride.  School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 8, 151-161.

 

Ross, S., & Smith, L. J. (1997).  Improving the academic success of disadvantaged children:  An examination of Success for All.  Psychology in the Schools, 34, 171-180.

 

Jayasinghe, M. G., Morrison, G. R., & Ross, S. M. (1997).  The effect of distance learning classroom design on student perceptions.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 45, 5-20.

 

Ross, S. M., Smith, L. J., & Nath, L. (1998).  Improving school achievement and inter-group relations for children placed at risk:  The Roots & Wings program.  European Journal of Intercultural education, 9(2), 141-155.

 

Smith, L. J., Ross, S. M., McNelis, M, Squires, M., and others (1998). The Memphis restructuring initiative:  Analysis of activities and outcomes that impact implementation success.  Education and Urban Society, 30(3), 296-325.

 

Stringfield, S., Datnow, A., Ross, S., & Snively, F. (1998).  Scaling up school restructuring in multicultural multilingual contexts:  Early observations from Sunland County. Education and Urban Society, 30(3), 326-357.

 

Ross, S. M. (1998).  Contemporary developments in educational technology design and evaluation:  Introduction to special issue.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 46(4), 5-6.

 

Ross, S. M., Smith, L. J., & Casey, J. P. (1999).  “Bridging the gap”: The effects of the Success for All Program on elementary school reading achievement as a function of student ethnicity and ability level.  School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 10(2), 129-150.

 

Ross, S. M., Alberg, M., Smith. L., Anderson, R., Bol, L., Dietrich, A., Lowther, D., & Phillipsen, L. (2000). Using whole-school restructuring to improve educational outcomes:  The Memphis story at year 3.  Teaching and Change, 7(2), 111-126.

 

Ross, S. M., & Seidel, S. (2000).  The introduction to the NEA Teacher Education Initiative.  Teaching and Change, 8, 5-9.

 

Nath, L.R., & Ross, S.M. (2001).  The influence of a peer tutoring training model for implementing cooperative groupings with elementary students.  Educational Technology, Research and Development, 49(2), 41-56. 

 

Ross, S. M., Sanders, W. L., Wright, S. P., Stringfield, S., Wang, L. W., & Alberg, M. (2001).  Two- and three-year achievement results from the Memphis Restructuring Initiative.  School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 12, 323-346. 

 

Bol, L., Nunnery, J., Ross, S.M., & Alberg, M. (2002). A comparison of teachers’ assessment practices in school restructuring models by year of implementation.  Journal of Educational Research for Students Placed at Risk, 7(4), 407-423.

 

Reynolds, A., Ross, S.M., & Rakow, J.H. (2002).  Teacher retention, teaching effectiveness, and professional preparation: A comparison of professional development school and non-professional development school graduates.  Teaching and Teacher Education, 18, 289-303.

 

Ross, S. M. (2002).  Becoming a good consumer of evidence.  Principal Leadership, High School Edition, (3)2, 10-14. 

 

Lowther, D. L., & Ross, S. M. (2003).  When each one has one: The influences on teaching strategies and student achievement of using laptops in the classroom.  Educational Technology Research and Development, 51(3), 23-44. 

 

Ross, S. M. (2003).  How to get off the reform roller coaster.  Principal Leadership High School Edition, 6-21. 

 

Ross, S. M. (2003).  Effective schools correlates as indicators of educational improvement: An examination of three urban reform initiatives.  Journal of Effective Schools, 2(2), 67-81.

 

Ross, S. M., & Lowther, D. L. (2003).  Impacts of the Co-nect school reform design on classroom instruction, school climate, and student achievement in inner-city schools.  Journal for Educational Research on Students Placed at Risk, 8(3), 215-246.

 

Ross, S.M., Stringfield, S., Sanders, W.L., & Wright, S.P. (2003).  Inside systemic elementary school reform:  Teacher effects and teacher mobility.  School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 14(1), 73-110.